Shaykh Nur ul-Mubeen, Oudekraal, a beneficiary of our first charity? Image © Shafiq Morton
IT is my considered view that the institutions of Fitrah, Zakah and Sadaqah have existed in the Cape for longer than we realise. And if my hunch proves correct, we could say that Islamic charity of some sort has been practiced at the Cape for over 350 years.
This would mean that SANZAF, established in 1974, only formalised what had already been in existence. Of course, as an institution SANZAF has done much good work to increase the Zakah base, to educate the community and to uplift thousands of needy people.
Going through historical accounts of life during the early days of the Cape Colony, first as a Dutch East India Company outpost and then as a British colony, I do not find any direct mentions of Zakah or Sadaqah. In other words, given all the details of life at the Cape, we don’t – at first glance – see any charity in action.
Apart from the early historians observing things through a patronising Orientalist lens, and not having access to the inner social workings of the slave or Muslim community, it should not be a surprise. However, if one looks for the right things through a Muslim lens, it becomes more obvious that in spite of poverty, the first Muslims at the Cape must have either practised charity, or been its beneficiaries.
Islam at the Cape was held together because the early community, unlike in Brazil or the United States, had spiritual centres of focus and learning via the exiled Sufi Shaykhs from Indonesia.
And whilst things such as fiqh – the application of Sacred Law – would not be a strong point (the Statutes of India banned any religious practice except the Dutch Reformed one) the community would have been united in faith. Secretive communal exercises such as the Ratib ul-Haddad and visiting the tombs of the Awliya (or saints), would have been critical assembly points, especially as the Jumu’ah could not be performed.
The Sufi Shaykhs would have been the focus of solace for the slaves and vryeburghers (Free Blacks) who first landed as labourers and farmers in 1658. Sayyid Mahmud and Shaykh Abdurahman, who arrived from Sumatra in 1667, were kept away from the city as exiles in Constantia, but this did not prevent escaped slaves from finding their way to these wise men in the forests.
Early archival records indicate that slaves running away to hide in the mountains, or stowing away on ships, was a headache for the authorities, and resulted in some harsh punishments for those who were caught.
The arrival of Shaykh Yusuf in 1694 supports this idea. An internationally renowned Javanese scholar who’d lectured in the Makkah haram, his Zandvliet home – 30 kilometres from the city centre in the bush – was widely acknowledged as a rallying point for escapees and those seeking succour. There is complete scholarly consensus on this.
I have often wondered whether we appreciate enough the fact that so many of our karamats are situated in the surrounding mountains close to streams. This is because these Shaykhs had established communities far from the prying eyes of Dutch East India officials. At Oudekraal, for example – where Tuan Sayyid Ja’fr is buried – I have identified at least 30 grave sites.
To carry deceased bodies from the city in those days as far as Oudekraal would have been daunting, if not impossible. The only conclusion can be that there were secret Muslim communities living on the slopes of the Twelve Apostles and that they buried their dead there.
This hypothesis was developed by Adil Bradlow in his research on the Cape, as well as the late Dr Achmat Davids and Shaykh Yusuf da Costa, who has written extensively on our early history. Whether one agrees with Sufism is not the point. If it hadn’t been for the pioneering efforts of these Shuyukh, Islam would have shrivelled on the bough like it did in Brazil and the US.
When the public practice of Islam was prohibited it was these intrepid men and women who carried the light of iman from the city to the bush, and when Islam could be openly practiced at the Cape, from the bush back to the city.
It is a beautiful story, except for one thing. How did these people sustain themselves? At places like Oudekraal there would have been plenty of fish, but what about clothing, cooking utensils or other such supplies?
Reports indicate that these communities would have had contact with the outside world via woodcutters or herdsmen. These people would have secretly smuggled goods to those hiding on the mountain. It begs the question: surely these refugees would have been the earliest beneficiaries of Islamic social charity at the Cape?
The most empowered participants would have been the vryeburghers, Free Black Muslims, who though restricted in many ways, could own slaves and private property. It is my view that they were the first practitioners of Sadaqah, or even Zakah, in Cape Town.
Today, I think we need to ponder on the fruits of their generosity, as humble as it may have been. For had these people not supported our early scholars over 350 years ago, none of us would be around today.
THE SANZAF International Zakah conference, held at the beginning of May in Cape Town, may not have attracted as many people as the recent Justin Bieber concert, but in terms of impact it certainly put the Beliebers to shame. Focusing on Zakah as a tool for humanitarian relief, it harnessed a wide range of local and international expertise.
With sessions on financial planning, women and Zakah, Zakah and NGOs and Zakah for entrepreneurs, conference goers were offered a wide choice of topics pertaining to the dynamic role that Zakah can play beyond its conventional understanding.
In the opening address, former Muslim Judicial Council president Maulana Igshan Hendricks, said it was critical that the local ‘ulama attended such events, and was disappointed by their lack of presence, though scholars such as Maulana Muhammad Carr, Maulana Sarfaraaz Hamza, Shaykh Basheer Moosagie, Shaikh Shahid Sulaiman, Maulana Abdul Fattaag Carr and Maulana Ta Ha Karaan did later make valuable contributions to the event.
Speaking to some of the international guests at the two day conference, they agreed Zakah in Africa – where rich-poor divides run deep – is a challenge. But lack of infrastructure, scarcity of funds, overwhelming poverty and even politics has not prevented civil society from rising to the occasion. To this end the Sudan-based Global Union of Zakat Rite was formed to address the question of Zakah in 2016.
Founded by 20 Arab and African countries, it has a membership of 40 Zakah organisations with its goals to spread awareness of Zakah and to build the capacity of Zakah agencies. SANZAF is an affiliate of the Global Union.
Shamsuddin Bolatito, co-ordinator of the Global Union said that educating people to be Zakah officers was one of its first steps. This, he said, was being done in collaboration with the Islamic Research and Training Institute of the Islamic Development Bank in Jeddah and the Accounting and Islamic Standards Organisation in Manama, Bahrain.
Both Professor Osman Khieri, head of the Global Union’s Strategic Council in Sudan, and Muhammad Lawal Maidoki of the Sokoto State Zakat and Endowment Commission in Nigeria, agreed that the ultimate prize was to be able to react immediately to humanitarian crises in Africa, as opposed to being reliant on international NGOs or the UN.
The swiftness of response from inside the continent was a critical factor in easing pain and suffering for communities affected by things such as fire, flood or famine.
Maidoki said that in the Sokoto region nearly 2 million people lived on less than a dollar a day. Whilst the Sokoto State Zakat and Endowment Commission enjoyed patronage from the region’s leadership, there was a need for the establishment and monitoring of Awqaf institutions needed to support and fund projects.
Dr Nunung Nurul Hidaya, lecturer at Ashton Business School in the United Kingdom, brought attention to a necessary inter-face between Islamic finance and philanthropy. She emphasised that Zakah and Sadaqah institutions should not be overwhelmed by the business for profit motive.
Islamic finance, she said, was essentially rooted in philanthropy with poverty alleviation and redistributive justice its aims. It had the potential to take care of the needs of the extremely poor and destitute.
She gave two examples of how in recent years Zakah has risen to play a significant role in alleviating poverty. Brunei, an oil-rich nation of a population of about 500,000, had experienced a 55% growth in Zakah in the past decade, disbursing R179 million in 2010. Indonesia’s Zakah-spend had increased 32 times in ten years, R3 billion being distributed in 2012.
Using Indonesia as a model, she said integration of organisations, their public accountability and accounting standards were still challenges. She also said that Islamic financial institutions were still too reluctant to embrace the Prophetic risk-sharing model in creating start-ups for the poor.
Dr Nunung also said that women were becoming increasingly significant players in the paying of Zakah, especially in countries where women were in the workplace. This point was emphasised in a radio interview with Fayruz Mohamed, national deputy chairperson of SANZAF, who headed a session on Women in Zakah with Western Cape General Manager, Yasmine Francke.
When asked about the role of SANZAF, the international guests said they were impressed by its capacity and outreach in a society where Muslims are a minority group. They said that SANZAF’s sophisticated distribution networks – via its 40 or so nation-wide offices – were particularly impressive.
SO much is written, and said, about Zakat as a noble institution of giving to the poor. A means of cleansing one’s wealth, it is without doubt, a hugely transformational aspect of Islam with the potential of alleviating – if not eradicating – poverty.
It is for this reason that the Prophet [SAW] was exhorted by divine inspiration to make it a pillar of faith. For surely, if we do not wish for our fellow beings what we wish for ourselves (as in Hadith) there can be no humanity in us, let alone a sense of social justice.
In this sense I would venture that perhaps one of the most neglected, least understood aspects of Zakat is those who qualify to receive it. We all know that Sacred Law has defined eight special categories of people who are able to receive Zakat.
Unfortunately, the pressures of alleviating immediate social needs in a sharply rich-poor divided world, has led to a neglect of the depth of Zakat. Zakat is far more complex than just the handing of money or goods to the poor, who form the first category, or layer, of recipients.
Imam Naqib al-Masri, the famous Shafi’i scholar, outlines the eight categories we use today but adds a lot of subtle detail in his famous Umdat as-Salik. What is profoundly evident is that Imam Shafi’i saw Zakat more as a means of social empowerment and upliftment than just poverty relief.
In fact, all the great imams went to great pains to elucidate on the question of Zakat, and it comprises a substantial body of work in Fiqh.
In modern terms, the first level of Zakat qualification extends to the low income or indigent – in other words, the poverty stricken. This is where, as I’ve already said, most of our institutional energy is focused. Of course, it is understandable that this is the case.
The second is those in difficulty – for example, communities displaced or dispossessed by an earthquake, a tsunami, a fire or a war. Here one still sees lots of institutional energy, but perhaps if it was wider understood as a vehicle of Zakat, even more could be done for people in places such as Imizamo Yethu in Hout Bay or war-torn Syria or famine-struck East Africa.
Of course, we have to remind ourselves that the distribution of Zakat is determined by human needs, and not by the politics of the day.
The third category, which involves our Zakat institutions, entitles those who work in the Zakat environment to be entitled to a living wage. It is interesting to note – in a community where so many Muslim employers don’t pay fair wages – that this principle was mooted over 1,400 years ago.
The fourth category, Zakat for those who need to be reconciled – which includes new Muslims, those who are wavering in their Deen and even non-Muslims in need – is a much under-estimated vehicle for creating social harmony. I knew of a famous Shaykh who used to overwhelm reverts and non-Muslims with gifts, saying that the Prophet [SAW] had done exactly the same thing.
The fifth category – those in bondage – may seem like an anachronism, but as some Shuyukh have pointed out, it is still applicable in the case of human trafficking where people urgently need to be given their dignity.
The sixth category, the remittance of debt, is a principle embodied in Surat ul-Baqarah, verse 280:
“If the debtor is in a difficulty
Grant him time until it is easy for him to repay.
But if you remit it by way of charity
That is best for you, only if you knew.”
The burden of unreasonable debt can destroy families and ruin lives. Debt relief is a critical aspect of social relief. In this case, one can keep a roof over people’s heads and prevent a descent into even worse poverty and dependency.
Zakat , the seventh category, can be utilised on the path of Allah. The old Shafi’i text books talk about Zakat funding Muslim army volunteers. The more contemporary Shafi’ite interpretation extends to the funding of mosques, education and other socially uplifting programmes.
The eighth, and final category, is that of the wayfarer. Whether a traveller, a refugee or someone in need on the road, they all qualify for Zakat. This say the scholars, is a great gift from God. Nobody in Islam, anywhere, should ever suffer discomfort as should every other human being.
In conclusion, by looking at those who can receive Zakat, an exciting universe of humanitarian possibilities and social empowerment opens up, which goes way beyond putting a band-aid on an elephant.
WHILST the niyyah, or intention, underlies every action – good or bad – every action is accompanied by adab, which in turn is accompanied by akhlaq, the practice of virtue, morality and manners. Failing that, it becomes something that is qabih – or ugly in nature – and will have little social value.
Zakat, a pillar of Islam, involves the active process of giving off wealth by the person obeying the edict of faith. However, without the process described above, the act of Zakat can be demeaning to the recipient and a merely narcissistic act on behalf of the giver.
If that is the case the barakah, or blessings, of Zakat are hugely diminished because in Islam the less privileged do enjoy certain rights over the privileged. One of these important rights is dignity.
So to impart dignity one has to show noble behaviour, something epitomised by the Prophet [SAW] who was enjoined by Allah in the Qur’an to be soft and gentle to others because compassion – and not anger – brought people together:
"O Messenger of Allah! It is a great Mercy of God that you are gentle and kind …for, had you been harsh and hard-hearted, they would all have broken away from you" [Qur’an 3:159].
The Prophet [SAW] achieved greatness because he didn’t neglect anyone in his realm, rich or poor, though he did prefer the latter – whom, he said, would pass the gates of Heaven before the wealthy. Once he said to A’ishah: "O, A’ishah! Never turn away any needy man from your door empty-handed. “
There is much implied meaning in the phrase “empty handed”, because it did not mean that a person should give the poor simply anything, like rotten food or broken clothes. In that case, said a Shaykh to me once, the poor will still leave your threshold “empty handed.”
Or as a humanitarian worker once said: “Don’t use the poor as a rubbish bin. They have the same needs as you; the same need for quality clothes as you, the same need for nourishment as you, the same need for the necessities of life as you. Don’t insult yourself by insulting the dignity of the poor. If you are not going to eat it or wear it, why give it?”
In Islam wealth is seen as a means, and not as an end. Even the maqasid, or objectives of the Shari’ah as espoused by people like Imam al-Shatibi, note that wealth and property are basic human rights.
But via instruments such as Zakat, wealth becomes a social mechanism for re-distribution and poverty eradication – big political questions – with the minimum of fuss and inconvenience. Legally, the amounts liable to be given and those liable to receive are clearly set out. Spiritually, Zakat is regarded as purification, but on so many other levels it is a collective benefit to society as it begets socio-economic justice by halal means.
Under a system of Zakat, the giver and the given both enjoy rights – not before a human – but before God. It is for this reason that the Prophet [SAW] once said that wealth is a blessing in the hands of a righteous person.
By Shaykh Hasan al-Banna | Islamic Institute for Development and Research
IN the Islamic conception, the cosmos as a whole and the earth in particular, have been subjected to human beings and placed at their service in order for them to fulfil their roles as the vicegerents of God (khalifah). Material wealth belongs to God and is given to us as a trust (amanah).
The acquisition and management of material wealth through legitimate means, so that we might put it to use in the doing of good, is thus a fulfilment of one of our missions on earth. The Qur’an states:
”Believe in God and His Messenger, and spend on others out of that of which He has made you vicegerents.” [57:7]
Islam views material wealth as means and not an end, which becomes our sole preoccupation. ‘Amr ibn al-‘As narrated that the Prophet (s) said: “What a blessing wealth is in the possession of a righteous man!” [Bukhari in Adab al-Mufrad].
‘Abdallah ibn Habib, on the authority of his paternal uncle, narrates that the Prophet (s) said: “There is nothing wrong with wealth for those who are conscious of God, Almighty and Majestic is He.” [Bukhari in Adab al-Mufrad].
The preservation of wealth or property is one of the five maqasid [objectives] of the Shari’ah or what the jurists term as ‘hifdh al-mal’. Imam al-Ghazali, Shaykh ‘Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, Imam al-Shatibi and other legal masters have clearly articulated that the Shari’ah exists to protect life, faith, intellect, progeny and wealth. The basic provisions of food, shelter and clothing falls under the legal category of daruriyat, or necessities, which in Islam are non-negotiable.
However, wealth is a test for us and a source of temptation both with respect to the ways in which we acquire it and spend it. Abu Barazah al-Aslami narrates that the Prophet (s) said: “On the Day of Resurrection, no human being will be released from God’s presence until he has been asked where he obtained his wealth and how he put it to use.” [Tirmidhi].
A’ishah narrates that the Prophet (s) used to pray, saying, “O God, I seek Your protection from the evil of the temptation posed by both wealth and poverty.”
Ka’b ibn ‘Iyad narrates that the Prophet (s) said: “Every nation has its particular trial, and my nation’s trial is that of wealth.” [Tirmidhi].
Islam delineates a framework for individual pursuit and management of wealth embodied in three principles:
Firstly, circulation of wealth and the prohibition of hoarding wealth
MATERIAL wealth from an Islamic perspective has a social function and thus a number of texts forbid us to hoard wealth. The Qur’an describes the consequences of such an action in an emphatic manner:
“But as for all who lay up treasures of gold and silver and do not spend them for the sake of God – give them the tiding of grievous suffering [in the life to come]: on the Day that the hoarded wealth shall be heated in the fire of hell and their foreheads and their sides and their backs branded therewith, [those sinners shall be told]: ‘These are the treasures which you have laid up for yourselves! Taste, then [the evil of] your hoarded treasures.” [9:34-35].
Secondly, spending in terms of priority
ISLAM places primary importance on spending on oneself, giving this higher priority than spending on charity. The Prophet (s) said: “The best charity is that which is spent out of sufficiency. Begin with those for whose material support you are responsible.” [See Fath al-Bari of Imam Hajr al-Asqalani].
This is to protect oneself from falling into a state of impoverishment and becoming dependent on others as a result of giving charity. The need to prepare for one’s children’s future and for old age is part of the prudent management of wealth as envisioned by Islam.
Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas narrated that the Prophet said to him, “To leave your heirs wealthy is better than to leave them destitute and forced to beg from others.” [Ibn Abi Dunya].
A’ishah narrates a prayer of the Prophet (s): “O Allah, grant me Your abundant sustenance in my later years, when my lifetime is drawing to a close and my end is near.” [Ibn Abi Dunya].
Thirdly, moderation in spending
THE Qur’an warns of two extremes in spending and management of wealth, that of miserliness and excessiveness. It calls for a path of moderation. The Qur’an speaks in praise of those “who, whenever they spend on others, are neither wasteful nor misers but [remember that] there is always a just mean …” [25:6-7].
It warns us: “And neither allow your hand to remain shackled to your neck, nor stretch it forth to the utmost limit, lest you may find yourself blamed (by your dependents), or even destitute.”
Zakat is thus to be seen in the light of the above premises. It is one of the five pillars of Islam and an obligation on all Muslims who meet the criteria and a right of the eight beneficiaries as outlined in the Qur’an. The term Zakat has been mentioned 58 times in the Qur’an. It has been mentioned 32 times in isolation and 26 times together with Salah (prayers). The commandment to establish Zakat often in conjunction with Salah testifies how Islam equally emphasises both the development of the world and the Hereafter.
Apart from Salah, Zakat as an act of worship is a symbol of Islamic economic justice that ensures equal and trustworthy distribution of wealth. Proper and transparent distribution of Zakat will have a direct impact on the equitable distribution of wealth to the society. This reflects duly on the meaning of Zakat which is to “increase”, to “grow”, to “purify” and to offer peace.
So why Zakat?
I WOULD contend that in addition to fulfilling the commandment of God (which in itself is the macro maqsad or legal intent of the Shari’ah) the institution of Zakat exists for four objectives, or maqasid, which can be outlined as follows:
WHEN introducing the obligation of Zakat, the Qur’an states:
“Take alms out of their property, you would cleanse them and purify them thereby...” [9:103].
This signifies the spiritual significance of Zakat. The action is connected intrinsically to its linguistic meaning of purification and growth. It purifies us from attachment to material wealth, miserliness, greed and love of this world - and in doing so - we grow and develop the human soul. This purification also has another side, that of material purification. It is as though we are getting rid of impure elements, which we consciously or sub-consciously acquired, in the pursuit of seeking a livelihood.
This is the wisdom behind the prohibition of the Prophet and his family being beneficiaries of Zakat. The Prophet (s) is reported have said: “Zakat is the awsakh (dross) of the people, it is neither lawful for Muhammad or the family of Muhammad.” [Abu Ubayd in Kitab al-Amwal]. The Prophet’s family’s avoidance of Zakat, according to al-Nawawi, “is to preserve their honour and to keep them clean from [worldly] impurity.”
Eradication of Poverty
ZAKAT is a pivotal component of Islam’s vision to eradicate poverty from society. The Prophet Muhammad (s) considered poverty as a serious matter. His stand on poverty could be seen when he reminded his Companions that Zakat must be disbursed to assist the poor.
Imam Abu Hanifah declared that the wealth of Zakat must be used to protect the welfare of the poor. Every category of people who deserves to be given zakat must receive their duly rights. If there are among the beneficiaries who do not need the offerings of Zakat, then Zakat must first be distributed among the poor and needy. Zakat is an instrument to eradicate poverty in Muslim society. To obtain this objective, Zakat must be utilised to develop the economy so that the wealth of Zakat could be regarded as a productive asset to achieve this means. Prophet Muhammad (s) has expressed that the minimum objective of Zakat distribution is to ensure that the poor and needy will lead a comfortable life with the proceeds of Zakat.
Therefore, Zakat distribution aims to alter the lives of the poverty-stricken. Imam al-Kasani, a great Hanafi jurist, is of the opinion that the distribution of Zakat must serve to cater for the needs of its recipient. For this purpose, Zakat does not necessarily need be given to all its beneficiaries if there are those who need more Zakat. According to al-Kasani, the ruler’s discretion could be used in identifying ways to distribute Zakat so it is aligned with its objectives.
Herein lies the importance of the action of Sayyidina Abu Bakr in waging war against some Bedouin Muslims during his Caliphate when they refused to pay the Zakat. They were undermining a pillar of Islam, which extended beyond a mere act of personal piety to an integral component of Islam’s socio-economic vision in eradicating poverty.
THE institution of Zakat is an integral part of an Islamic paradigm for economic empowerment. The objective of the Shari’ah in preserving wealth and property is not limited to the individual dimension only, for collective economic standing also features as a key objective of the Shari’ah. Economic empowerment of deprived communities is an objective of Zakat.
The second Caliph, Umar Ibn al-Khattab, drive to achieve this vision was such that he eventually could not identify recipients for Zakat, creating a surplus of Zakat in the Bait al-Mal, or national treasury. In essence, his public policy was to lift people out of the poverty zone. Zakat was thus an institution of public finance and economic empowerment.
The definition of a ‘good quality of life’ provided by the scholars of Maqasid entails that it caters for the necessities of life [daruriyat] and needs of life [hajiyat].
ZAKAT provides the basis for socio-economic justice and equality. Wealth, as stated earlier, is a trust from God, to be acquired by lawful means and to be spent on oneself and society to preserve the quality of life intended for us by God. Rights and obligations are balanced. Zakat is not a voluntary act of piety to help the poor, but rather a religious obligation on some and a right for others. In offering Zakat, we are merely fulfilling a right that certain sections of society have on us.
Hence, effective Zakat management would meet the goals of Zakat in contributing to socio-economic justice and equality. It will alleviate economic hardship by making an effort to find resources to improve lives, which will gradually bridge the gap between the rich and poor in terms of their income level and economic opportunities.
Zakat teaches us the responsibilities we have to one another as fellow Muslims and human beings, beyond mere legal obligations. Jurists divide Zakat into amwal Zakat [manifest wealth] and amwal batinah [hidden wealth]. Public policy relating to the enforcement of Zakat only covers the former. The latter refers to forms of wealth which can easily be concealed by the owner.
Contrary to the manifest wealth, which is in the domain of the political characteristic of Zakat, hidden wealth falls under the domain of the religious characteristic of Zakat, and thus remains between God and His servant. Hence, we see that Sayyidina Abu Bakr did not fight those who avoided paying Zakat on currency [as it was considered hidden wealth].
Al-Mawardi states in al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah:
“The wealth subjected to Zakat is of two kinds: the manifest [zahirah] and the hidden [batinah]. The manifest wealth is that which cannot be concealed such as plantations, fruit, and livestock. The hidden wealth is that which can be concealed such as gold, silver and gain from trade. The administrator of Zakat [the wali al-sadaqah] must not scrutinise the Zakat of hidden wealth, for the owner of this wealth has more authority than the administrator to pay it out.”
However, given the emergence of the modern nation state [armed with unprecedented technological potential] and its totalitarian intrusion into the personal life of its citizens, the line between manifest and hidden wealth is blurred. Nothing is hidden and all spheres of life are subject to public scrutiny.
It is not only a question of legal obligation, but Zakat deeply remains an ethical choice. It is the test of our love and solidarity for our fellow human beings and a real barometer to ascertain whether we really consider wealth a trust from Allah.
The author, SHAYKH SM HASAN AL-BANNA, is the founding director of the Islamic Institute for Development & Research (IIDR) and an Advisory Board Member of the Research Centre for Islamic Legislation and Ethics (Faculty of Islamic Studies, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation).
In addition to pursuing his postgraduate research at Al-Azhar University in Islamic Jurisprudence, he is a successful entrepreneur and CEO of a global publishing and media company. Shaykh Hasan al-Banna has authored and translated over ten works on Islamic history, law, thought and spirituality.
Slightly edited by SANZAF. Courtesy the IIDR: https://iidr.org/opinions/24-why-Zakat/